Argumentation et numérique : quels peuvent être les apports d’une analyse croisée de l’argumentation sur des questions socio-scientifiques chez des élèves ?

Gabriel PALLARES, Kévin DE CHECCHI

LIRDEF, EA 3749 – UM/UPVM

Résumé : Dans cette communication, nous présentons des éléments extraits de deux thèses en cours et leurs interactions. La première se base sur des cadres didactiques et issus des sciences de l’éducation, la seconde s’ancre dans la psychologie cognitive. Ces travaux s’inscrivent dans le projet AREN (ARgumentation Et Numérique), qui vise à étudier l’impact d’une plateforme de débat numérique sur l’apprentissage de l’argumentation des élèves lors de débats portant sur des questions socio-scientifiques. Après avoir présenté nos approches théoriques et méthodologiques respectives, nous exposons les apports mutuels de l’articulation de ces approches. Nous montrons en quoi articuler une étude de l’impact de la stratégie didactique en classe et une analyse des processus d’apprentissage de l’élève est complémentaire.

Mots clés : Argumentation, questions socio-scientifiques, apprentissage, numérique, épistémologie personnelle.

Abstract : In this communication, we show part of the work of two thesis and their interactions. The first one is based on educational frameworks, the second one uses cognitive psychology theories. Those works take part in the AREN project (ARgumentation Et Numérique). This project aim to study the impact of a digital debate tool on the learning of argumentation in pupils discussing about socio-scientific issues. We present both of our theoretical and methodological approaches, then we explore the mutual contributions between them. We highlight how articulating a study of the impact of the didactical strategy in class and an analysis of the pupil’s learning processes is complementary.

Key-words : Argumentation, socio-scientific issues, learning, digital, personal epistemology

Contexte, approches et questions de recherche

Nous présentons dans cette communication à deux voix le travail croisé de deux doctorants au sein du projet de recherche ARgumentation Et Numérique (AREN), portant sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage de l’argumentation et de l’esprit critique dans une optique d’éducation à la citoyenneté. Dans cette perspective, préparer les élèves, futurs citoyens, à prendre part de façon éclairée aux débats sur des questions dites « socio-scientifiques » (ci-après QSS) est devenu un enjeu éducatif majeur (socle commun de 2015, domaine 3, Gaussel, 2016).

Le projet AREN1 est une recherche sur 4 ans, qui associe des chercheurs et des enseignants visant à développer et évaluer un dispositif pédagogique centré sur l’usage d’une plateforme de débat numérique, AREN. Chaque année voit une nouvelle itération de la boucle d’expérimentation, suivant une méthode de Design Experiment (Cobb et al., 2003). Dix enseignants de lycée de différentes disciplines (géographie, SVT, SPC, EMC) ont ainsi mis en place dans leur classe un dispositif pédagogique construit autour d’un débat portant sur des questions socio-scientifiques : tout d’abord, une phase de préparation des élèves au débat, visant à alimenter les élèves en termes de contenu, avec étude de documents ; ensuite, le débat en classe à l’aide de la plateforme AREN ; enfin, une phase de synthèse réflexive lors de laquelle les élèves analysent les interventions du débat, se concentrant en particulier sur les différents domaines de la QSS et sur la qualité de l’argumentation.

Une partie des recherches au sein d’AREN sont menées par deux doctorants, chacun abordant les thématiques de ce projet avec une approche spécifique, mobilisant des cadres théoriques et des épistémologies différentes et complémentaires.

L’un des doctorants (en deuxième année) est issu d’une formation en didactique des mathématiques et des sciences expérimentales. Son approche est focalisée sur les stratégies didactiques visant à développer les capacités argumentatives et l’esprit critique. L’objectif est d’évaluer l’impact du dispositif pédagogique mis en place chaque année sur les apprentissages des élèves, au niveau de la classe. Avec une démarche quantitative et évaluative, il met en place une étude des arguments pour évaluer une évolution globale des capacités argumentatives des élèves. Son travail est principalement axé sur les objectifs d’enseignement : les compétences argumentatives et l’esprit critique. Dans cette optique, son travail est sous-tendu par les questions de recherche suivantes : Quels sont les apports possibles d’un outil numérique de débat pour le développement des capacités argumentatives et de la pensée critique des élèves ? En particulier pour l’argumentation, quelle est la qualité de l’argumentation déployée par les élèves lors d’un débat numérique synchrone en classe ? Pour l’esprit critique, quel peut être l’apport du numérique pour appréhender la complexité des QSS ?

Le second doctorant (en première année) a suivi une formation en sciences cognitives et en épistémologie des sciences. Son travail porte sur les processus d’apprentissage des compétences argumentatives et de l’esprit critique lors des différentes étapes du dispositif pédagogique testé. La méthodologie utilisée est qualitative et explicative : elle se centre sur des entretiens visant à explorer les caractéristiques de l’épistémologie personnelle de l’élève ainsi que son activité métacognitive afin de rendre compte de ses capacités argumentatives et de leurs évolutions. Le cadre d’étude est donc centré principalement sur l’apprentissage de l’individu favorisé par les différentes activités incluses dans le dispositif pédagogique. Le choix de ce cadre est motivé par les questions de recherche suivantes (qui sont en cours de construction et peuvent être amenées à évoluer) : Quel est le lien entre l’épistémologie personnelle de l’élève et sa qualité argumentative ? Certaines caractéristiques de l’épistémologie personnelle ont-elles une influence sur le développement de ces compétences ? Quel est le lien entre l’activité métacognitive de l’élève et le développement de ses compétences argumentatives ?2

Nos méthodologies respectives et leur articulation

Nous nous proposons d’explorer dans cette communication les apports mutuels de nos cadres et méthodologies respectives. Nous allons ainsi nous focaliser en particulier sur l’élaboration de nos outils d’analyse, le traitement et l’interprétation des données.

La grille d’évaluation de la qualité de l’argumentation déployée par les élèves pendant le débat se focalise sur les diverses compétences identifiées dans la littérature : construire des arguments justifiés (Sadler & Zeidler, 2005) et des réfutations (Clark & Sampson, 2008), prendre en compte le domaine de validité de ses arguments (Toulmin, 1958), les différents domaines de la QSS (Simonneaux, 2008) et les incertitudes qui y sont relatives (Morin et al., 2014). Nous présenterons lors de cette communication l’application de cette grille à un débat numérique d’élèves, ainsi que l’élaboration de cartographies des différents débats. En outre, à titre d’exemple d’interprétation des données ainsi traitées, nous présenterons quelques résultats obtenus lors de la première année du projet, notamment concernant la spécificité de l’argumentation traitant de QSS (domaines et incertitudes en particulier).

La grille d’analyse de l’épistémologie personnelle des élèves est en cours de construction, et sera appliquée à des données récupérées lors d’entretiens. La thèse étant à ses débuts, ceux-ci sont en préparation et devraient être mis en place au début de l’année 2018. La grille se focalisera sur les différentes étapes du dispositif pédagogique en les analysant en termes d’activités cognitives et métacognitives portant sur des connaissances (Barzilai & Zohar 2012, 2016). Elle prendra aussi en compte les caractéristiques de l’épistémologie personnelle de l’élève, qui peuvent être décrites grâce à quatre dimensions (Hofer, 2004, Chinn et al., 2011): simplicité de la structure des connaissances, degré de certitude, source, type de justification employées. Le premier entretien visera à explorer l’épistémologie personnelle de l’élève, la grille permettra d’en cerner les caractéristiques. Le second entretien visera lui à faire effectuer à l’élève un retour sur ses productions lors du débat. Les deux entretiens seront ensuite comparés afin d’étudier l’évolution des caractéristiques de l’épistémologie personnelle, en lien avec celle de la qualité de l’argumentation.

En combinant ces deux approches, nous pouvons mettre en place un travail croisé sur l’argumentation portant sur des questions socio-scientifiques déployée par les élèves lors des débats. Ce croisement nous est permis par la mise en lien de nos hypothèses de travail respectives à propos de l’argumentation : lien entre apprentissage et pratique de l’argumentation d’une part, lien entre l’épistémologie personnelle de l’élève et sa manière d’argumenter dans la pratique d’autre part.

En effet, les deux analyses se complètent mutuellement : l’approche qualitative, centrée sur l’élève et ses processus d’apprentissage, aide à expliquer et comprendre l’impact de la stratégie didactique élaborée et mise en place. En retour, l’évaluation quantitative de l’impact de la stratégie au niveau plus large de la classe permet de mieux situer les processus d’apprentissage analysés en replaçant dans leur contexte les productions argumentatives des élèves lors du débat.

La confrontation des deux méthodes peut aussi nous permettre d’approfondir l’analyse par une étude des processus à l’œuvre avec une granularité différente. La mise en lien des résultats obtenus d’une part par l’analyse des débats et de l’autre par les entretiens offre la possibilité d’observer des effets ou des phénomènes transversaux qui n’auraient pas été détectés sans l’interaction des deux analyses.

Enfin, la complémentarité des deux approches se traduit aussi par celle entre deux domaines et littératures différents. En effet, les sciences cognitives apportent des éléments de modélisation de l’apprentissage (épistémologie personnelle, métacognition), alors qu’une approche plus didactique des QSS apporte des éclairages sur les aspects importants de l’éducation à ce type de questions (complexité, incertitude, ouverture). Si l’articulation de différentes littératures peut parfois être complexe, notamment au niveau d’un langage commun, cela nous permet en revanche de questionner mutuellement nos cadres théoriques au sein d’une réflexion pluridisciplinaire.

Références bibliographiques

Barzilai, S., & Zohar, A. (2016). Epistemic (Meta)cognition: Ways of Thinking About Knowledge and Knowing. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of Epistemic Cognition (pp. 409-424). New York, NY: Routledge.

Barzilai, S., & Zohar, A. (2012). Epistemic Thinking in Action : Evaluating and Integrating Online Sources. Cognition and Instruction, 30(1), 39-85.

Chinn, C. C., Buckland, L. A., Samarapungavan, A. (2011). Expanding the Dimensions of Epistemic Cognition : Arguments From Philosophy and Psychology. Educational Psychologist, 46(3), 141-167.

Clark, D. B., & Sampson, V. (2008). Assessing Dialogic Argumentation in Online Environments to Relate Structure, Grounds, and Conceptual Quality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(3), 293-321.

Cobb, P., Confrey J., Lehrer, R. &Schauble, L. (2003). Design Experiments in Educational Research. Educational Researcher, 32(1),9-13.

Gaussel, M. (2016). Développer l’esprit critique par l’argumentation : de l’élève au citoyen. Dossiers de veille de l’IFÉ, 108.

Hofer, B. K. (2010). Epistemological Understanding as a Metacognitive Process : Thinking Aloud During Online Searching. Educational Psychologist, 39 :1, 43-55.

Morin, O., Simonneaux, L., Simonneaux, J., Tytler, R., & Barraza, L. (2014). Developing and Using and S3R Model to Analyze Reasoning in Web-Based Cross-National Exchanges on Sustainability. Science Education, 98(3), 517-542.

Sadler, T. D., & Zeidler, D. L. (2005). Patterns of Informal Reasoning in the Context of Socioscientific Decision Making. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(1), 112-138.

Simonneaux, L. (2008). Argumentation in Socio-Scientific Contexts. In S. Erduran & M. Jiménez-Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in Science Education (p. 179-199). Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument. Cambridge University Press.

1 Projet soutenu par l’état dans le cadre du volet e-FRAN du Programme d’Investissements d’Avenir, opéré par la Caisse des Dépôts. Outre l’Université de Montpellier (LIRMM et LIRDEF) et l’Université Paul Valéry de Montpellier (LIRDEF), les partenaires du projet sont l’Académie de Montpellier, les sociétés Intactile Design, Mezoa, et We Are Learning, ainsi que les associations Forum des débats et Controversciences.

2 Cette dernière question de recherche excède le cadre de notre communication et ne sera pas abordée ici.

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