Rôle des pratiques citoyennes dans l’initiation aux sciences en Maternelle. Cas de la décomposition de la matière organique chez des élèves de Grande Section, dans le contexte du compostage en Bretagne

Valérie MARCHAL

Actuellement, la gestion des déchets est une question environnementale omniprésente qui est traitée à l’école. La loi TECV du 17 août 2015 élargit l’obligation à tous les gros producteurs de biodéchets (cantines scolaires incluses) de réaliser un tri à la source d’ici 2025. Ceux-ci devront donc disposer de sources de collecte et de solutions de compostage de proximité.

La réussite de la promotion du compostage passe par la prise de conscience de son importance dans la gestion des biodéchets, indissociable de la compréhension des phénomènes scientifiques de décomposition qui en donnent le sens. Certes, les programmes scolaires traitent du recyclage, mais ils sensibilisent aux écogestes sans prendre en compte les connaissances initiales des élèves et sans faire le lien avec le processus biologique de décomposition des déchets. Or, les recherches en éducation scientifique montrent qu’une initiation précoce aux sciences, au-delà de l’apport de savoirs, évite que certaines idées constituent des obstacles à l’apprentissage. Le concept de modèle précurseur, utilisé dans certaines études, semble fécond pour proposer une simplification des modèles scientifiques en faisant appel à des choses connues de l’enfant et permettre ainsi à celui-ci de construire un ensemble organisé de connaissances ayant du sens par rapport au réel.

En comparant les connaissances initiales des enfants dans des écoles ayant ou non un composteur à proximité, cette étude vise à voir si des pratiques citoyennes de compostage dans leur environnement proche ont un impact sur les conceptions initiales des enfants concernant le processus de décomposition, hors de toute éducation formelle. Au-delà de son l’intérêt pour l’aménagement du territoire urbain, cette étude permettra également de construire un modèle d’enseignement scientifique sur la décomposition des matériaux en maternelle.

Références bibliographiques

Delserieys, A., Jégou, C., Boilevin, J.-M., & Ravanis, K. (2017). Precursor model and preschool science learning about shadows formation. Research in Science and Technological Education, 1‑18.

Lhoste, Y., & Peterfalvi, B. (2009). Problématisation et perspective curriculaire en SVT: l’exemple du concept de nutrition. Aster, (49), 79‑108.

Dupré, M. (2013). Représentations sociales du tri sélectif et des déchets en fonction des pratiques de tri. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 2(98), 173‑209.

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